Income Deduction Order: A support magistrate or a
judge reduces the income of the respondent by the
amount of the debt owed to the petitioner upon
proof of the violation of a support order.
Intake Hearing or “1027”/ “1028”: A hearing when a
child is removed from his or her home without a
court order is known as a “1027.” This hearing must
be held as soon as possible to determine if the child
should be remanded to a place designated by the
court, placed in the custody of someone other than
the respondent parent or guardian, or released to
the respondent pending the final order. The parent
or guardian can move to have the child released to
her pending the final outcome of the case in a
hearing known as a “1028.”
Integrated Domestic Violence Court (IDV): A
specialized court that hears all aspects of domestic
violence cases based on a one-family-one judge
model. See Section 6 of this guide for more
Interpreter: A person who orally translates for
non-English speaking and hearing impaired litigants
Investigation and Report (I&R): In juvenile delinquency
and PINS cases, a report prepared by the Probation
Department, by order of a Family Court judge,
describing a respondent's past behavior, educational
background and family circumstances, and an
assessment of the likelihood of respondent's
rehabilitation and/or successful functioning if she
remains in the community or is placed away from
the home. This report is used by the judge in
deciding what kind of dispositional order to issue.
An investigation and report may also be ordered by
the court in custody and visitation, child protective,
family offense and termination of parental rights
proceedings. In the latter cases, however, other
agencies, including the Department of Social Services,
may be directed by the court to perform this function.
Judge: The individual who is in charge of the
courtroom who listens to witnesses, examines
evidence, and decide any legal questions that arise
during the proceedings. Following the presentation
of all evidence, he or she determines the outcome
of the case and issues any necessary orders.
Judicial Conduct Commission: An agency charged
with reviewing complaints against judges or local
justices. Generally, the complaints which the
commission reviews include possible conflicts of
interest, violations of a party’s rights, intoxication,
bias, prejudice, favoritism, gross neglect of duty,
corruption, prohibited political activity, and other
misconduct on or off the bench.
Judicial Department: The Appellate Division of the
Supreme Court is divided into 4 judicial departments,
each consisting of 4 or 5 judges. Each department has
jurisdiction over a different part of New York State.
Judicial Hearing Officer (JHO): A former or retired
judge, appointed by the Chief Administrative Judge
for a one year term, assigned to hear contested
paternity proceedings, custody and visitation
proceedings and family offenses matters in the Family
Court. In New York City, JHOs may also be assigned
adoptions, permanency hearings, and foster care
review cases. Generally, judicial hearing officers hear
cases and report their recommendations to a Family
Court judge who determines the outcome of the cases.
Jurisdiction: A geographic area established by
statute within which a court may exercise authority.
Juvenile: An individual who has not yet reached the
age at which one should be treated as an adult by
the criminal justice system.
Juvenile Delinquent: A person at least age 7 years
of age but under age 16 who commits an act that, if
committed by an adult, would constitute a crime.
Juvenile Offender: A person aged 13, 14, or 15 who
commits certain designated felony acts that are
adjudicated in a criminal court.
Law Guardian: A lawyer assigned by a judge to
represent the child involved in a Family Court